What is Competition Manipulation in Sport?

Competition manipulation occurs when a sportsperson or official cheats to remove the unpredictability of a competition. Sportspersons may cheat to lose a competition or part of it, which is entirely against the Olympic spirit. The reason behind such an action would be either to gain a sporting advantage (e.g. face an easier opponent in the 2nd round of a tournament) or to gain a financial benefit, notably linked with sports betting.

In order to prevent the proliferation of competition manipulation, OCA works together with the Olympic Movement Unit on the Prevention of the Manipulation of Competitions (“OM Unit PMC”) via the educational campaign “Be True, Be You, Believe in Sport" to ensure that all athletes, officials and support staff are aware of the Code of Conduct of the Olympic Movement Unit on the Prevention of the Manipulation of Competitions in order to protect themselves and their sport from threats linked to competition manipulation:

The Believe in Sport Campaign provides a wide range to tools, including audio-visual materials and e-learning for the Olympic Movement stakeholders to raise awareness about the threats of competition manipulation. For more information: Believe in Sport Toolbox.

What are the Rules and Violations?

In order to best fight against competition manipulation, OCA has adopted rules which are applicable for all OCA competitions. The rules are in line with the Olympic Movement Code on the Prevention of the Manipulation of Competitions. Breaches of the rules lead to disciplinary sanctions.

Breaches include:

  • Betting on one’s sport
  • Sharing of inside information
  • Corrupt conduct / manipulation
  • Failure to cooperate
  • Failure to report

If such a breach is identified during an OCA competition, there will be disciplinary proceedings which could lead to disciplinary sanctions for the sportspersons involved.

Always report & contribute to keeping sport inspirational

Relevant breaches of the Rules not only undermine the credibility of your sport, but also the credibility of the overall sports movement and all athletes. It is therefore not only a responsibility, but also a moral duty of all of us to report anything that comes to our attention and looks suspicious. It is our right and responsibility to contribute to protecting the moral integrity of our fellow athletes and our sport, by reporting in a safe way, any potential breach that comes to our attention.

The OCA Integrity reporting mechanism is accessible for anyone at any time to confidentially report any suspicious actions that have come to your attention:

Role of NOCs in the prevention of the manipulation of competitions

The Olympic Movement Unit of the Manipulation of Sport Competitions works closely with NOCs towards the prevention of the manipulation of competitions and is in the process of developing a network of Single Points of Contacts (SPOCs): the appointment of a SPOC in each NOC who will be in charge of the development of relevant activities.

The role of NOCs in the field include:

  • Adoption of rules by NOCs and support to NFs of their country in relation to the adoption of rules (In line with the OM Code PMC)
  • Development of awareness-raising activities for their country’s sportsperson. The Believe in Sport Toolbox can be used for this purpose. NOCs are also encouraged to appoint Believe in Sport Ambassadors who could support with the dissemination of relevant messages in the country.
  • Development of intelligence activities and case management

NOCs that have not yet proceeded to their activation can contact either OCA or the OM Unit PMC directly at

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